Caching

class Cake\Cache\Cache

Caching can be used to make reading from expensive or slow resources faster, by maintaining a second copy of the required data in a faster or closer storage system. For example, you can store the results of expensive queries, or remote webservice access that doesn’t frequently change in a cache. Once in the cache, reading data from the cache is much cheaper than accessing the remote resource.

Caching in CakePHP is facilitated by the Cache class. This class provides a static interface and uniform API to interact with various Caching implementations. CakePHP provides several cache engines, and provides a simple interface if you need to build your own backend. The built-in caching engines are:

  • FileCache File cache is a simple cache that uses local files. It is the slowest cache engine, and doesn’t provide as many features for atomic operations. However, since disk storage is often quite cheap, storing large objects, or elements that are infrequently written work well in files.
  • ApcuEngine APCu cache uses the PHP APCu extension. This extension uses shared memory on the webserver to store objects. This makes it very fast, and able to provide atomic read/write features. Prior to 3.6.0 ApcuEngine was named ApcEngine.
  • Wincache Wincache uses the Wincache extension. Wincache is similar to APC in features and performance, but optimized for Windows and IIS.
  • MemcachedEngine Uses the Memcached extension.
  • RedisEngine Uses the phpredis extension. Redis provides a fast and persistent cache system similar to Memcached, also provides atomic operations.

Regardless of the CacheEngine you choose to use, your application interacts with Cake\Cache\Cache.

Configuring Cache Engines

static Cake\Cache\Cache::config($key, $config = null)

Your application can configure any number of ‘engines’ during its bootstrap process. Cache engine configurations are defined in config/app.php.

For optimal performance CakePHP requires two cache engines to be defined.

  • _cake_core_ is used for storing file maps, and parsed results of Internationalization & Localization files.
  • _cake_model_, is used to store schema descriptions for your applications models.

Using multiple engine configurations also lets you incrementally change the storage as needed. For example in your config/app.php you could put the following:

// ...
'Cache' => [
    'short' => [
        'className' => 'File',
        'duration' => '+1 hours',
        'path' => CACHE,
        'prefix' => 'cake_short_'
    ],
    // Using a fully namespaced name.
    'long' => [
        'className' => 'Cake\Cache\Engine\FileEngine',
        'duration' => '+1 week',
        'probability' => 100,
        'path' => CACHE . 'long' . DS,
    ]
]
// ...

Configuration options can also be provided as a DSN string. This is useful when working with environment variables or PaaS providers:

Cache::config('short', [
    'url' => 'memcached://user:password@cache-host/?timeout=3600&prefix=myapp_',
]);

When using a DSN string you can define any additional parameters/options as query string arguments.

You can also configure Cache engines at runtime:

// Using a short name
Cache::config('short', [
    'className' => 'File',
    'duration' => '+1 hours',
    'path' => CACHE,
    'prefix' => 'cake_short_'
]);

// Using a fully namespaced name.
Cache::config('long', [
    'className' => 'Cake\Cache\Engine\FileEngine',
    'duration' => '+1 week',
    'probability' => 100,
    'path' => CACHE . 'long' . DS,
]);

// Using a constructed object.
$object = new FileEngine($config);
Cache::config('other', $object);

The name of these engine configurations (‘short’ and ‘long’) are used as the $config parameter for Cake\Cache\Cache::write() and Cake\Cache\Cache::read(). When configuring cache engines you can refer to the class name using the following syntaxes:

// Short name (in App\ or Cake namespaces)
Cache::config('long', ['className' => 'File']);

// Plugin short name
Cache::config('long', ['className' => 'MyPlugin.SuperCache']);

// Full namespace
Cache::config('long', ['className' => 'Cake\Cache\Engine\FileEngine']);

// An object implementing CacheEngineInterface
Cache::config('long', ['className' => $myCache]);

Note

When using the FileEngine you might need to use the mask option to ensure cache files are made with the correct permissions.

Engine Options

Each engine accepts the following options:

  • duration Specify how long items in this cache configuration last. Specified as a strototime() compatible expression.
  • groups List of groups or ‘tags’ associated to every key stored in this config. handy for deleting a complete group from cache.
  • prefix Prepended to all entries. Good for when you need to share a keyspace with either another cache config or another application.
  • probability Probability of hitting a cache gc cleanup. Setting to 0 will disable
    Cache::gc() from ever being called automatically.

FileEngine Options

FileEngine uses the following engine specific options:

  • isWindows Automatically populated with whether the host is windows or not
  • lock Should files be locked before writing to them?
  • mask The mask used for created files
  • path Path to where cachefiles should be saved. Defaults to system’s temp dir.

RedisEngine Options

RedisEngine uses the following engine specific options:

  • port The port your Redis server is running on.
  • host The host your Redis server is running on.
  • database The database number to use for connection.
  • password Redis server password.
  • persistent Should a persistent connection be made to Redis.
  • timeout Connection timeout for Redis.
  • unix_socket Path to a unix socket for Redist.

MemcacheEngine Options

  • compress Whether to compress data.
  • username Login to access the Memcache server.
  • password Password to access the Memcache server.
  • persistent The name of the persistent connection. All configurations using
    the same persistent value will share a single underlying connection.
  • serialize The serializer engine used to serialize data. Available engines are php,
    igbinary and json. Beside php, the memcached extension must be compiled with the appropriate serializer support.
  • servers String or array of memcached servers. If an array MemcacheEngine will use
    them as a pool.
  • options Additional options for the memcached client. Should be an array of option => value.
    Use the \Memcached::OPT_* constants as keys.

Configuring Cache Fallbacks

In the event that an engine is not available, such as the FileEngine trying to write to an unwritable folder or the RedisEngine failing to connect to Redis, the engine will fall back to the noop NullEngine and trigger a loggable error. This prevents the application from throwing an uncaught exception due to cache failure.

You can configure Cache configurations to fall back to a specified config using the fallback configuration key:

Cache::config('redis', [
    'className' => 'Redis',
    'duration' => '+1 hours',
    'prefix' => 'cake_redis_',
    'host' => '127.0.0.1',
    'port' => 6379,
    'fallback' => 'default',
]);

If the Redis server unexpectedly failed, writing to the redis cache configuration would fall back to writing to the default cache configuration. If writing to the default cache configuration also failed in this scenario, the engine would fall back once again to the NullEngine and prevent the application from throwing an uncaught exception.

You can turn off cache fallbacks with false:

Cache::config('redis', [
    'className' => 'Redis',
    'duration' => '+1 hours',
    'prefix' => 'cake_redis_',
    'host' => '127.0.0.1',
    'port' => 6379,
    'fallback' => false
]);

When there is no fallback cache failures will be raised as exceptions.

New in version 3.5.0: Cache engine fallbacks were added.

Changed in version 3.6.0: Fallbacks can now be disabled via false

Removing Configured Cache Engines

static Cake\Cache\Cache::drop($key)

Once a configuration is created you cannot change it. Instead you should drop the configuration and re-create it using Cake\Cache\Cache::drop() and Cake\Cache\Cache::config(). Dropping a cache engine will remove the config and destroy the adapter if it was constructed.

Writing to a Cache

static Cake\Cache\Cache::write($key, $value, $config = 'default')

Cache::write() will write a $value to the Cache. You can read or delete this value later by referring to it by $key. You may specify an optional configuration to store the cache in as well. If no $config is specified, default will be used. Cache::write() can store any type of object and is ideal for storing results of model finds:

if (($posts = Cache::read('posts')) === false) {
    $posts = $someService->getAllPosts();
    Cache::write('posts', $posts);
}

Using Cache::write() and Cache::read() to reduce the number of trips made to the database to fetch posts.

Note

If you plan to cache the result of queries made with the CakePHP ORM, it is better to use the built-in cache capabilities of the Query object as described in the Caching Loaded Results section

Writing Multiple Keys at Once

static Cake\Cache\Cache::writeMany($data, $config = 'default')

You may find yourself needing to write multiple cache keys at once. While you can use multiple calls to write(), writeMany() allows CakePHP to use more efficient storage API’s where available. For example using writeMany() save multiple network connections when using Memcached:

$result = Cache::writeMany([
    'article-' . $slug => $article,
    'article-' . $slug . '-comments' => $comments
]);

// $result will contain
['article-first-post' => true, 'article-first-post-comments' => true]

Read Through Caching

static Cake\Cache\Cache::remember($key, $callable, $config = 'default')

Cache makes it easy to do read-through caching. If the named cache key exists, it will be returned. If the key does not exist, the callable will be invoked and the results stored in the cache at the provided key.

For example, you often want to cache remote service call results. You could use remember() to make this simple:

class IssueService
{
    public function allIssues($repo)
    {
        return Cache::remember($repo . '-issues', function () use ($repo) {
            return $this->fetchAll($repo);
        });
    }
}

Reading From a Cache

static Cake\Cache\Cache::read($key, $config = 'default')

Cache::read() is used to read the cached value stored under $key from the $config. If $config is null the default config will be used. Cache::read() will return the cached value if it is a valid cache or false if the cache has expired or doesn’t exist. The contents of the cache might evaluate false, so make sure you use the strict comparison operators: === or !==.

For example:

$cloud = Cache::read('cloud');
if ($cloud !== false) {
    return $cloud;
}

// Generate cloud data
// ...

// Store data in cache
Cache::write('cloud', $cloud);

return $cloud;

Or if you are using another cache configuration called short, you can specify it in Cache::read() and Cache::write() calls as below:

// Read key "cloud", but from short configuration instead of default
$cloud = Cache::read('cloud', 'short');
if ($cloud !== false) {
    return $cloud;
}

// Generate cloud data
// ...

// Store data in cache, using short cache configuration instead of default
Cache::write('cloud', $cloud, 'short');

return $cloud;

Reading Multiple Keys at Once

static Cake\Cache\Cache::readMany($keys, $config = 'default')

After you’ve written multiple keys at once, you’ll probably want to read them as well. While you could use multiple calls to read(), readMany() allows CakePHP to use more efficient storage API’s where available. For example using readMany() save multiple network connections when using Memcached:

$result = Cache::readMany([
    'article-' . $slug,
    'article-' . $slug . '-comments'
]);
// $result will contain
['article-first-post' => '...', 'article-first-post-comments' => '...']

Deleting From a Cache

static Cake\Cache\Cache::delete($key, $config = 'default')

Cache::delete() will allow you to completely remove a cached object from the store:

// Remove a key
Cache::delete('my_key');

Deleting Multiple Keys at Once

static Cake\Cache\Cache::deleteMany($keys, $config = 'default')

After you’ve written multiple keys at once, you may want to delete them. While you could use multiple calls to delete(), deleteMany() allows CakePHP to use more efficient storage API’s where available. For example using deleteMany() save multiple network connections when using Memcached:

$result = Cache::deleteMany([
    'article-' . $slug,
    'article-' . $slug . '-comments'
]);
// $result will contain
['article-first-post' => true, 'article-first-post-comments' => true]

Clearing Cached Data

static Cake\Cache\Cache::clear($check, $config = 'default')

Destroy all cached values for a cache configuration. In engines like: Apcu, Memcached, and Wincache, the cache configuration’s prefix is used to remove cache entries. Make sure that different cache configurations have different prefixes:

// Will only clear expired keys.
Cache::clear(true);

// Will clear all keys.
Cache::clear(false);
static Cake\Cache\Cache::gc($config)

Garbage collects entries in the cache configuration. This is primarily used by FileEngine. It should be implemented by any Cache engine that requires manual eviction of cached data.

Note

Because APCu and Wincache use isolated caches for webserver and CLI they have to be cleared separately (CLI cannot clear webserver and vice versa).

Using Cache to Store Counters

static Cake\Cache\Cache::increment($key, $offset = 1, $config = 'default')
static Cake\Cache\Cache::decrement($key, $offset = 1, $config = 'default')

Counters in your application are good candidates for storage in a cache. As an example, a simple countdown for remaining ‘slots’ in a contest could be stored in Cache. The Cache class exposes atomic ways to increment/decrement counter values in an easy way. Atomic operations are important for these values as it reduces the risk of contention, and ability for two users to simultaneously lower the value by one, resulting in an incorrect value.

After setting an integer value you can manipulate it using increment() and decrement():

Cache::write('initial_count', 10);

// Later on
Cache::decrement('initial_count');

// Or
Cache::increment('initial_count');

Note

Incrementing and decrementing do not work with FileEngine. You should use APCu, Wincache, Redis or Memcached instead.

Using Cache to Store Common Query Results

You can greatly improve the performance of your application by putting results that infrequently change, or that are subject to heavy reads into the cache. A perfect example of this are the results from Cake\ORM\Table::find(). The Query object allows you to cache results using the cache() method. See the Caching Loaded Results section for more information.

Using Groups

Sometimes you will want to mark multiple cache entries to belong to certain group or namespace. This is a common requirement for mass-invalidating keys whenever some information changes that is shared among all entries in the same group. This is possible by declaring the groups in cache configuration:

Cache::config('site_home', [
    'className' => 'Redis',
    'duration' => '+999 days',
    'groups' => ['comment', 'article']
]);
Cake\Cache\Cache::clearGroup($group, $config = 'default')

Let’s say you want to store the HTML generated for your homepage in cache, but would also want to automatically invalidate this cache every time a comment or post is added to your database. By adding the groups comment and article, we have effectively tagged any key stored into this cache configuration with both group names.

For instance, whenever a new post is added, we could tell the Cache engine to remove all entries associated to the article group:

// src/Model/Table/ArticlesTable.php
public function afterSave($event, $entity, $options = [])
{
    if ($entity->isNew()) {
        Cache::clearGroup('article', 'site_home');
    }
}
static Cake\Cache\Cache::groupConfigs($group = null)

groupConfigs() can be used to retrieve mapping between group and configurations, i.e.: having the same group:

// src/Model/Table/ArticlesTable.php

/**
 * A variation of previous example that clears all Cache configurations
 * having the same group
 */
public function afterSave($event, $entity, $options = [])
{
    if ($entity->isNew()) {
        $configs = Cache::groupConfigs('article');
        foreach ($configs['article'] as $config) {
            Cache::clearGroup('article', $config);
        }
    }
}

Groups are shared across all cache configs using the same engine and same prefix. If you are using groups and want to take advantage of group deletion, choose a common prefix for all your configs.

Globally Enable or Disable Cache

static Cake\Cache\Cache::disable

You may need to disable all Cache read & writes when trying to figure out cache expiration related issues. You can do this using enable() and disable():

// Disable all cache reads, and cache writes.
Cache::disable();

Once disabled, all reads and writes will return null.

static Cake\Cache\Cache::enable

Once disabled, you can use enable() to re-enable caching:

// Re-enable all cache reads, and cache writes.
Cache::enable();
static Cake\Cache\Cache::enabled

If you need to check on the state of Cache, you can use enabled().

Creating a Cache Engine

You can provide custom Cache engines in App\Cache\Engine as well as in plugins using $plugin\Cache\Engine. Cache engines must be in a cache directory. If you had a cache engine named MyCustomCacheEngine it would be placed in either src/Cache/Engine/MyCustomCacheEngine.php. Or in plugins/MyPlugin/src/Cache/Engine/MyCustomCacheEngine.php as part of a plugin. Cache configs from plugins need to use the plugin dot syntax:

Cache::config('custom', [
    'className' => 'MyPlugin.MyCustomCache',
    // ...
]);

Custom Cache engines must extend Cake\Cache\CacheEngine which defines a number of abstract methods as well as provides a few initialization methods.

The required API for a CacheEngine is

class Cake\Cache\CacheEngine

The base class for all cache engines used with Cache.

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::write($key, $value)
Returns:boolean for success.

Write value for a key into cache, Return true if the data was successfully cached, false on failure.

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::read($key)
Returns:The cached value or false for failure.

Read a key from the cache. Return false to indicate the entry has expired or does not exist.

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::delete($key)
Returns:Boolean true on success.

Delete a key from the cache. Return false to indicate that the entry did not exist or could not be deleted.

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::clear($check)
Returns:Boolean true on success.

Delete all keys from the cache. If $check is true, you should validate that each value is actually expired.

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::clearGroup($group)
Returns:Boolean true on success.

Delete all keys from the cache belonging to the same group.

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::decrement($key, $offset = 1)
Returns:Boolean true on success.

Decrement a number under the key and return decremented value

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::increment($key, $offset = 1)
Returns:Boolean true on success.

Increment a number under the key and return incremented value

Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::gc()

Not required, but used to do clean up when resources expire. FileEngine uses this to delete files containing expired content.