class CakeEmail(mixed $config = null)

CakeEmail is a new class to send email. With this class you can send email from any place in your application. In addition to using the EmailComponent from your controller, you can also send mail from Shells and Models.

This class replaces the EmailComponent and gives more flexibility in sending emails. For example, you can create your own transports to send email instead of using the provided SMTP and Mail transports.

Basic usage

First of all, you should ensure the class is loaded using App::uses():

App::uses('CakeEmail', 'Network/Email');

Using CakeEmail is similar to using EmailComponent. But instead of using attributes you use methods. Example:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->from(array('[email protected]' => 'My Site'));
$Email->to('[email protected]');
$Email->send('My message');

To simplify things, all of the setter methods return the instance of class. You can re-write the above code as:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->from(array('[email protected]' => 'My Site'))
    ->to('[email protected]')
    ->send('My message');

Choosing the sender

When sending email on behalf of other people it’s often a good idea to define the original sender using the Sender header. You can do so using sender():

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->sender('[email protected]', 'MyApp emailer');


It’s also a good idea to set the envelope sender when sending mail on another person’s behalf. This prevents them from getting any messages about deliverability.


Similar to database configuration, email configuration can be centralized in a class.

Create the file app/Config/email.php with the class EmailConfig. The app/Config/email.php.default has an example of this file.

CakeEmail will create an instance of the EmailConfig class to access the config. If you have dynamic data to put in the configs, you can use the constructor to do that:

class EmailConfig {
    public function __construct() {
        // Do conditional assignments here.

It is not required to create app/Config/email.php, CakeEmail can be used without it and use respective methods to set all configurations separately or load an array of configs.

To load a config from EmailConfig you can use the config() method or pass it to the constructor of CakeEmail:

$Email = new CakeEmail();

//or in constructor::
$Email = new CakeEmail('default');

// Implicit 'default' config used as of 2.7
$Email = new CakeEmail();

Instead of passing a string which matches the configuration name in EmailConfig you can also just load an array of configs:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->config(array('from' => '[email protected]', 'transport' => 'MyCustom'));

//or in constructor::
$Email = new CakeEmail(array('from' => '[email protected]', 'transport' => 'MyCustom'));


Use $Email->config() or the constructor to set the log level to log email headers and message. Using $Email->config(array('log' => true)); will use LOG_DEBUG. See also CakeLog::write()

You can configure SSL SMTP servers such as Gmail. To do so, prefix the host with 'ssl://' and configure the port value accordingly. Example:

class EmailConfig {
    public $gmail = array(
        'host' => 'ssl://',
        'port' => 465,
        'username' => '[email protected]',
        'password' => 'secret',
        'transport' => 'Smtp'

You can also use tls:// to prefer TLS for connection level encryption.


You will need to have access for less secure apps enabled in your Google account for this to work: Allowing less secure apps to access your account.


To use either the ssl:// or tls:// feature, you will need to have the SSL configured in your PHP install.

As of 2.3.0 you can also enable STARTTLS SMTP extension using the tls option:

class EmailConfig {
    public $gmail = array(
        'host' => '',
        'port' => 465,
        'username' => '[email protected]',
        'password' => 'secret',
        'transport' => 'Smtp',
        'tls' => true

The above configuration would enable STARTTLS communication for email messages.

New in version 2.3: Support for TLS delivery was added in 2.3


The following configuration keys are used:

  • 'from': Email or array of sender. See CakeEmail::from().

  • 'sender': Email or array of real sender. See CakeEmail::sender().

  • 'to': Email or array of destination. See CakeEmail::to().

  • 'cc': Email or array of carbon copy. See CakeEmail::cc().

  • 'bcc': Email or array of blind carbon copy. See CakeEmail::bcc().

  • 'replyTo': Email or array to reply the e-mail. See CakeEmail::replyTo().

  • 'readReceipt': Email address or an array of addresses to receive the receipt of read. See CakeEmail::readReceipt().

  • 'returnPath': Email address or and array of addresses to return if have some error. See CakeEmail::returnPath().

  • 'messageId': Message ID of e-mail. See CakeEmail::messageId().

  • 'subject': Subject of the message. See CakeEmail::subject().

  • 'message': Content of message. Do not set this field if you are using rendered content.

  • 'headers': Headers to be included. See CakeEmail::setHeaders().

  • 'viewRender': If you are using rendered content, set the view class name. See CakeEmail::viewRender().

  • 'template': If you are using rendered content, set the template name. See CakeEmail::template().

  • 'theme': Theme used when rendering template. See CakeEmail::theme().

  • 'layout': If you are using rendered content, set the layout to render. If you want to render a template without layout, set this field to null. See CakeEmail::template().

  • 'viewVars': If you are using rendered content, set the array with variables to be used in the view. See CakeEmail::viewVars().

  • 'attachments': List of files to attach. See CakeEmail::attachments().

  • 'emailFormat': Format of email (html, text or both). See CakeEmail::emailFormat().

  • 'transport': Transport name. See CakeEmail::transport().

  • 'helpers': Array of helpers used in the email template.

All of these configurations are optional, except 'from'. If you put more configurations in this array, the configurations will be used in the CakeEmail::config() method and passed to the transport class config(). For example, if you are using the SMTP transport, you should pass the host, port and other configurations.


The values of above keys using Email or array, like from, to, cc, etc will be passed as first parameter of corresponding methods. The equivalent for: CakeEmail::from('', 'My Site') would be defined as 'from' => array('' => 'My Site') in your config.

Setting headers

In CakeEmail you are free to set whatever headers you want. When migrating to use CakeEmail, do not forget to put the X- prefix in your headers.

See CakeEmail::setHeaders() and CakeEmail::addHeaders()

Sending templated emails

Emails are often much more than just a simple text message. In order to facilitate that, CakePHP provides a way to send emails using CakePHP’s view layer.

The templates for emails reside in a special folder in your applications View directory called Emails. Email views can also use layouts, and elements just like normal views:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->template('welcome', 'fancy')
    ->to('[email protected]')
    ->from('[email protected]')

The above would use app/View/Emails/html/welcome.ctp for the view, and app/View/Layouts/Emails/html/fancy.ctp for the layout. You can send multipart templated email messages as well:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->template('welcome', 'fancy')
    ->to('[email protected]')
    ->from('[email protected]')

This would use the following view files:

  • app/View/Emails/text/welcome.ctp

  • app/View/Layouts/Emails/text/fancy.ctp

  • app/View/Emails/html/welcome.ctp

  • app/View/Layouts/Emails/html/fancy.ctp

When sending templated emails you have the option of sending either text, html or both.

You can set view variables with CakeEmail::viewVars():

$Email = new CakeEmail('templated');
$Email->viewVars(array('value' => 12345));

In your email templates you can use these with:

<p>Here is your value: <b><?php echo $value; ?></b></p>

You can use helpers in emails as well, much like you can in normal view files. By default only the HtmlHelper is loaded. You can load additional helpers using the helpers() method:

$Email->helpers(array('Html', 'Custom', 'Text'));

When setting helpers be sure to include ‘Html’ or it will be removed from the helpers loaded in your email template.

If you want to send email using templates in a plugin you can use the familiar plugin syntax to do so:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->template('Blog.new_comment', 'Blog.auto_message');

The above would use templates from the Blog plugin as an example.

In some cases, you might need to override the default template provided by plugins. You can do this using themes by telling CakeEmail to use appropriate theme using CakeEmail::theme() method:

$Email = new CakeEmail();
$Email->template('Blog.new_comment', 'Blog.auto_message');

This allows you to override the new_comment template in your theme without modifying the Blog plugin. The template file needs to be created in the following path: APP/View/Themed/TestTheme/Blog/Emails/text/new_comment.ctp.

Sending attachments

CakeEmail::attachments($attachments = null)

You can attach files to email messages as well. There are a few different formats depending on what kind of files you have, and how you want the filenames to appear in the recipient’s mail client:

  1. String: $Email->attachments('/full/file/path/file.png') will attach this file with the name file.png.

  2. Array: $Email->attachments(array('/full/file/path/file.png')) will have the same behavior as using a string.

  3. Array with key: $Email->attachments(array('photo.png' => '/full/some_hash.png')) will attach some_hash.png with the name photo.png. The recipient will see photo.png, not some_hash.png.

  4. Nested arrays:

        'photo.png' => array(
            'file' => '/full/some_hash.png',
            'mimetype' => 'image/png',
            'contentId' => 'my-unique-id'

    The above will attach the file with different mimetype and with custom Content ID (when set the content ID the attachment is transformed to inline). The mimetype and contentId are optional in this form.

    4.1. When you are using the contentId, you can use the file in the HTML body like <img src="cid:my-content-id">.

    4.2. You can use the contentDisposition option to disable the Content-Disposition header for an attachment. This is useful when sending ical invites to clients using outlook.

    4.3 Instead of the file option you can provide the file contents as a string using the data option. This allows you to attach files without needing file paths to them.

Changed in version 2.3: The contentDisposition option was added.

Changed in version 2.4: The data option was added.

Using transports

Transports are classes designed to send the e-mail over some protocol or method. CakePHP supports the Mail (default), Debug and SMTP transports.

To configure your method, you must use the CakeEmail::transport() method or have the transport in your configuration.

Creating custom Transports

You are able to create your custom transports to integrate with others email systems (like SwiftMailer). To create your transport, first create the file app/Lib/Network/Email/ExampleTransport.php (where Example is the name of your transport). To start off your file should look like:

App::uses('AbstractTransport', 'Network/Email');

class ExampleTransport extends AbstractTransport {

    public function send(CakeEmail $Email) {
        // magic inside!


You must implement the method send(CakeEmail $Email) with your custom logic. Optionally, you can implement the config($config) method. config() is called before send() and allows you to accept user configurations. By default, this method puts the configuration in protected attribute $_config.

If you need to call additional methods on the transport before send, you can use CakeEmail::transportClass() to get an instance of the transport. Example:

$yourInstance = $Email->transport('your')->transportClass();

Relaxing address validation rules

CakeEmail::emailPattern($pattern = null)

If you are having validation issues when sending to non-compliant addresses, you can relax the pattern used to validate email addresses. This is sometimes necessary when dealing with some Japanese ISP’s:

$email = new CakeEmail('default');

// Relax the email pattern, so you can send
// to non-conformant addresses.

New in version 2.4.

Sending messages quickly

Sometimes you need a quick way to fire off an email, and you don’t necessarily want do setup a bunch of configuration ahead of time. CakeEmail::deliver() is intended for that purpose.

You can create your configuration in EmailConfig, or use an array with all options that you need and use the static method CakeEmail::deliver(). Example:

CakeEmail::deliver('[email protected]', 'Subject', 'Message', array('from' => '[email protected]'));

This method will send an email to, from with subject Subject and content Message.

The return of deliver() is a CakeEmail instance with all configurations set. If you do not want to send the email right away, and wish to configure a few things before sending, you can pass the 5th parameter as false.

The 3rd parameter is the content of message or an array with variables (when using rendered content).

The 4th parameter can be an array with the configurations or a string with the name of configuration in EmailConfig.

If you want, you can pass the to, subject and message as null and do all configurations in the 4th parameter (as array or using EmailConfig). Check the list of configurations to see all accepted configs.

Sending emails from CLI

Changed in version 2.2: The domain() method was added in 2.2

When sending emails within a CLI script (Shells, Tasks, …) you should manually set the domain name for CakeEmail to use. The domain name is used as the host name for the message id (since there is no host name in a CLI environment):

// Results in message ids like ``<[email protected]>`` (valid)
// instead of `<UUID@>`` (invalid)

A valid message id can help to prevent emails ending up in spam folders. If you are generating links in your email bodies you will also need to set the App.fullBaseUrl configure value.