5.0 Migration Guide

CakePHP 5.0 contains breaking changes, and is not backwards compatible with 4.x releases. Before attempting to upgrade to 5.0, first upgrade to 4.5 and resolve all deprecation warnings.

Refer to the 5.0 Upgrade Guide for step by step instructions on how to upgrade to 5.0.

Deprecated Features Removed

All methods, properties and functionality that were emitting deprecation warnings as of 4.5 have been removed.

Breaking Changes

In addition to the removal of deprecated features there have been breaking changes made:


  • Type declarations were added to all function parameter and returns where possible. These are intended to match the docblock annotations, but include fixes for incorrect annotations.

  • Type declarations were added to all class properties where possible. These also include some fixes for incorrect annotations.

  • The SECOND, MINUTE, HOUR, DAY, WEEK, MONTH, YEAR constants were removed.

  • Use of #[\AllowDynamicProperties] removed everywhere. It was used for the following classes:
    • Command/Command

    • Console/Shell

    • Controller/Component

    • Controller/Controller

    • Mailer/Mailer

    • View/Cell

    • View/Helper

    • View/View

  • The supported database engine versions were updated:
    • MySQL (5.7 or higher)

    • MariaDB (10.1 or higher)

    • PostgreSQL (9.6 or higher)

    • Microsoft SQL Server (2012 or higher)

    • SQLite 3 (3.16 or higher)



  • The Wincache engine was removed. The wincache extension is not supported on PHP 8.


  • combine() now throws an exception if the key path or group path doesn’t exist or contains a null value. This matches the behavior of indexBy() and groupBy().


  • BaseCommand::__construct() was removed.

  • ConsoleIntegrationTestTrait::useCommandRunner() was removed since it’s no longer needed.

  • Shell has been removed and should be replaced with Command

  • ConsoleOptionParser::addSubcommand() was removed alongside the removal of Shell. Subcommands should be replaced with Command classes that implement Command::defaultName() to define the necessary command name.

  • BaseCommand now emits Command.beforeExecute and Command.afterExecute events around the command’s execute() method being invoked by the framework.


  • Connection::prepare() has been removed. You can use Connection::execute() instead to execute a SQL query by specifing the SQL string, params and types in a single call.

  • Connection::enableQueryLogging() has been removed. If you haven’t enabled logging through the connection config then you can later set the logger instance for the driver to enable query logging $connection->getDriver()->setLogger().


  • The method signature for Controller::__construct() has changed. So you need to adjust your code accordingly if you are overriding the constructor.

  • After loading components are no longer set as dynamic properties. Instead Controller uses __get() to provide property access to components. This change can impact applications that use property_exists() on components.

  • The components’ Controller.shutdown event callback has been renamed from shutdown to afterFilter to match the controller one. This makes the callbacks more consistent.

  • PaginatorComponent has been removed and should be replaced by calling $this->paginate() in your controller or using Cake\Datasource\Paging\NumericPaginator directly

  • RequestHandlerComponent has been removed. See the 4.4 migration guide for how to upgrade

  • SecurityComponent has been removed. Use FormProtectionComponent for form tampering protection or HttpsEnforcerMiddleware to enforce use of HTTPS for requests instead.

  • Controller::paginate() no longer accepts query options like contain for its $settings argument. You should instead use the finder option $this->paginate($this->Articles, ['finder' => 'published']). Or you can create required select query before hand and then pass it to paginate() $query = $this->Articles->find()->where(['is_published' => true]); $this->paginate($query);.


  • The function getTypeName() has been dropped. Use PHP’s get_debug_type() instead.

  • The dependency on league/container was updated to 4.x. This will require the addition of typehints to your ServiceProvider implementations.

  • deprecationWarning() now has a $version parameter.

  • The App.uploadedFilesAsObjects configuration option has been removed alongside of support for PHP file upload shaped arrays throughout the framework.

  • ClassLoader has been removed. Use composer to generate autoload files instead.


  • The DateTimeType and DateType now always return immutable objects. Additionally the interface for Date objects reflects the ChronosDate interface which lacks all of the time related methods that were present in CakePHP 4.x.

  • DateType::setLocaleFormat() no longer accepts an array.

  • Query now accepts only \Closure parameters instead of callable. Callables can be converted to closures using the new first-class array syntax in PHP 8.1.

  • Query::execute() no longer runs results decorator callbacks. You must use Query::all() instead.

  • TableSchemaAwareInterface was removed.

  • Driver::quote() was removed. Use prepared statements instead.

  • Query::orderBy() was added to replace Query::order().

  • Query::groupBy() was added to replace Query::group().

  • SqlDialectTrait has been removed and all its functionality has been moved into the Driver class itself.

  • CaseExpression has been removed and should be replaced with QueryExpression::case() or CaseStatementExpression

  • Connection::connect() has been removed. Use $connection->getDriver()->connect() instead.

  • Connection::disconnect() has been removed. Use $connection->getDriver()->disconnect() instead.

  • cake.database.queries has been added as an alternative to the queriesLog scope

  • The ability to enable/disable ResultSet buffering has been removed. Results are always buffered.


  • The getAccessible() method was added to EntityInterface. Non-ORM implementations need to implement this method now.

  • The aliasField() method was added to RepositoryInterface. Non-ORM implementations need to implement this method now.


  • Event payloads must be an array. Other object such as ArrayAccess are no longer cast to array and will raise a TypeError now.

  • It is recommended to adjust event handlers to be void methods and use $event->setResult() instead of returning the result


  • ErrorHandler and ConsoleErrorHandler have been removed. See the 4.4 migration guide for how to upgrade

  • ExceptionRenderer has been removed and should be replaced with WebExceptionRenderer

  • ErrorLoggerInterface::log() has been removed and should be replaced with ErrorLoggerInterface::logException()

  • ErrorLoggerInterface::logMessage() has been removed and should be replaced with ErrorLoggerInterface::logError()


  • The Filesystem package was removed, and Filesystem class was moved to the Utility package.


  • ServerRequest is no longer compatible with files as arrays. This behavior has been disabled by default since 4.1.0. The files data will now always contain UploadedFileInterfaces objects.


  • FrozenDate was renamed to Date and FrozenTime was renamed to DateTime.

  • Time now extends Cake\Chronos\ChronosTime and is therefore immutable.

  • Date::parseDateTime() was removed.

  • Date::parseTime() was removed.

  • Date::setToStringFormat() and Date::setJsonEncodeFormat() no longer accept an array.

  • Date::i18nFormat() and Date::nice() no longer accept a timezone parameter.

  • Translation files for plugins with vendor prefixed names (FooBar/Awesome) will now have that prefix in the file name, e.g. foo_bar_awesome.po to avoid collision with a awesome.po file from a corresponding plugin (Awesome).


  • Log engine config now uses null instead of false to disable scopes. So instead of 'scopes' => false you need to use 'scopes' => null in your log config.


  • Email has been removed. Use Mailer instead.

  • cake.mailer has been added as an alternative to the email scope


  • EntityTrait::has() now returns true when an attribute exists and is set to null. In previous versions of CakePHP this would return false. See the release notes for 4.5.0 for how to adopt this behavior in 4.x.

  • EntityTrait::extractOriginal() now returns only existing fields, similar to extractOriginalChanged().

  • Finder arguments are now required to be associative arrays as they were always expected to be.

  • TranslateBehavior now defaults to the ShadowTable strategy. If you are using the Eav strategy you will need to update your behavior configuration to retain the previous behavior.

  • allowMultipleNulls option for isUnique rule now default to true matching the original 3.x behavior.

  • Table::query() has been removed in favor of query-type specific functions.

  • Table::updateQuery(), Table::selectQuery(), Table::insertQuery(), and Table::deleteQuery()) were added and return the new type-specific query objects below.

  • SelectQuery, InsertQuery, UpdateQuery and DeleteQuery were added which represent only a single type of query and do not allow switching between query types nor calling functions unrelated to the specific query type.

  • Table::_initializeSchema() has been removed and should be replaced by calling $this->getSchema() inside the initialize() method.

  • SaveOptionsBuilder has been removed. Use a normal array for options instead.


  • Static methods connect(), prefix(), scope() and plugin() of the Router have been removed and should be replaced by calling their non-static method variants via the RouteBuilder instance.

  • RedirectException has been removed. Use \Cake\Http\Exception\RedirectException instead.


  • TestSuite was removed. Users should use environment variables to customize unit test settings instead.

  • TestListenerTrait was removed. PHPUnit dropped support for these listeners. See PHPUnit 10 Upgrade

  • IntegrationTestTrait::configRequest() now merges config when called multiple times instead of replacing the currently present config.


  • Validation::isEmpty() is no longer compatible with file upload shaped arrays. Support for PHP file upload arrays has been removed from ServerRequest as well so you should not see this as a problem outside of tests.

  • Previously, most data validation error messages were simply The provided value is invalid. Now, the data validation error messages are worded more precisely. For example, The provided value must be greater than or equal to \`5\`.


  • ViewBuilder options are now truly associative (string keys).

  • NumberHelper and TextHelper no longer accept an engine config.

  • ViewBuilder::setHelpers() parameter $merge was removed. Use ViewBuilder::addHelpers() instead.

  • Inside View::initialize(), prefer using addHelper() instead of loadHelper(). All configured helpers will be loaded afterwards, anyway.

  • View\Widget\FileWidget is no longer compatible with PHP file upload shaped arrays. This is aligned with ServerRequest and Validation changes.

  • FormHelper no longer sets autocomplete=off on CSRF token fields. This was a workaround for a Safari bug that is no longer relevant.


The following is a list of deprecated methods, properties and behaviors. These features will continue to function in 5.x and will be removed in 6.0.


  • Query::order() was deprecated. Use Query::orderBy() instead now that Connection methods are no longer proxied. This aligns the function name with the SQL statement.

  • Query::group() was deprecated. Use Query::groupBy() instead now that Connection methods are no longer proxied. This aligns the function name with the SQL statement.


  • Calling Table::find() with options array is deprecated. Use named arguments instead. For e.g. instead of find('all', ['conditions' => $array]) use find('all', conditions: $array). Similarly for custom finder options, instead of find('list', ['valueField' => 'name']) use find('list', valueField: 'name') or multiple named arguments like find(type: 'list', valueField: 'name', conditions: $array).

New Features

Improved type checking

CakePHP 5 leverages the expanded type system feature available in PHP 8.1+. CakePHP also uses assert() to provide improved error messages and additional type soundness. In production mode, you can configure PHP to not generate code for assert() yielding improved application performance. See the Improve Your Application’s Performance for how to do this.


  • Added unique() which filters out duplicate value specified by provided callback.

  • reject() now supports a default callback which filters out truthy values which is the inverse of the default behavior of filter()


  • The services() method was added to PluginInterface.

  • PluginCollection::addFromConfig() has been added to simplify plugin loading.


  • ConnectionManager now supports read and write connection roles. Roles can be configured with read and write keys in the connection config that override the shared config.

  • Query::all() was added which runs result decorator callbacks and returns a result set for select queries.

  • Query::comment() was added to add a SQL comment to the executed query. This makes it easier to debug queries.

  • EnumType was added to allow mapping between PHP backed enums and a string or integer column.

  • getMaxAliasLength() and getConnectionRetries() were added to DriverInterface.

  • Supported drivers now automatically add auto-increment only to integer primary keys named “id” instead of all integer primary keys. Setting ‘autoIncrement’ to false always disables on all supported drivers.


  • Added support for PSR-17 factories interface. This allows cakephp/http to provide a client implementation to libraries that allow automatic interface resolution like php-http.

  • Added CookieCollection::__get() and CookieCollection::__isset() to add ergonomic ways to access cookies without exceptions.


Required Entity Fields

Entities have a new opt-in functionality that allows making entities handle properties more strictly. The new behavior is called ‘required fields’. When enabled, accessing properties that are not defined in the entity will raise exceptions. This impacts the following usage:


Fields are considered defined if they pass array_key_exists. This includes null values. Because this can be a tedious to enable feature, it was deferred to 5.0. We’d like any feedback you have on this feature as we’re considering making this the default behavior in the future.

Typed Finder Parameters

Table finders can now have typed arguments as required instead of an options array. For e.g. a finder for fetching posts by category or user:

public function findByCategoryOrUser(SelectQuery $query, array $options)
    if (isset($options['categoryId'])) {
        $query->where(['category_id' => $options['categoryId']]);
    if (isset($options['userId'])) {
        $query->where(['user_id' => $options['userId']]);

    return $query;

can now be written as:

public function findByCategoryOrUser(SelectQuery $query, ?int $categoryId = null, ?int $userId = null)
    if ($categoryId) {
        $query->where(['category_id' => $categoryId]);
    if ($userId) {
        $query->where(['user_id' => $userId]);

    return $query;

The finder can then be called as find('byCategoryOrUser', userId: $somevar). You can even include the special named arguments for setting query clauses. find('byCategoryOrUser', userId: $somevar, conditions: ['enabled' => true]).

A similar change has been applied to the RepositoryInterface::get() method:

public function view(int $id)
    $author = $this->Authors->get($id, [
        'contain' => ['Books'],
        'finder' => 'latest',

can now be written as:

public function view(int $id)
    $author = $this->Authors->get($id, contain: ['Books'], finder: 'latest');


  • IntegrationTestTrait::requestAsJson() has been added to set JSON headers for the next request.

Plugin Installer

  • The plugin installer has been updated to automatically handle class autoloading for your app plugins. So you can remove the namespace to path mappings for your plugins from your composer.json and just run composer dumpautoload.