3.0 Migration Guide

This page summarizes the changes from CakePHP 2.x that will assist in migrating a project to 3.0, as well as a reference to get up to date with the changes made to the core since the CakePHP 2.x branch. Be sure to read the other pages in this guide for all the new features and API changes.


  • CakePHP 3.x supports PHP Version 5.4.16 and above.

  • CakePHP 3.x requires the mbstring extension.

  • CakePHP 3.x requires the intl extension.


CakePHP 3.0 will not work if you do not meet the above requirements.

Upgrade Tool

While this document covers all the breaking changes and improvements made in CakePHP 3.0, we’ve also created a console application to help you complete some of the time consuming mechanical changes. You can get the upgrade tool from github.

Application Directory Layout

The application directory layout has changed and now follows PSR-4. You should use the app skeleton project as a reference point when updating your application.

CakePHP should be installed with Composer

Since CakePHP can no longer be installed via PEAR, or in a shared directory, those options are no longer supported. Instead you should use Composer to install CakePHP into your application.


All of CakePHP’s core classes are now namespaced and follow PSR-4 autoloading specifications. For example src/Cache/Cache.php is namespaced as Cake\Cache\Cache. Global constants and helper methods like __() and debug() are not namespaced for convenience sake.

Removed Constants

The following deprecated constants have been removed:


  • CSS

  • JS


  • JS_URL




Configuration in CakePHP 3.0 is significantly different than in previous versions. You should read the Configuration documentation for how configuration is done in 3.0.

You can no longer use App::build() to configure additional class paths. Instead you should map additional paths using your application’s autoloader. See the section on Additional Class Paths for more information.

Three new configure variables provide the path configuration for plugins, views and locale files. You can add multiple paths to App.paths.templates, App.paths.plugins, App.paths.locales to configure multiple paths for templates, plugins and locale files respectively.

The config key www_root has been changed to wwwRoot for consistency. Please adjust your app.php config file as well as any usage of Configure::read('App.wwwRoot').


CakePHP 3.0 features a new ORM that has been re-built from the ground up. The new ORM is significantly different and incompatible with the previous one. Upgrading to the new ORM will require extensive changes in any application that is being upgraded. See the new Database Access & ORM documentation for information on how to use the new ORM.


  • LogError() was removed, it provided no benefit and is rarely/never used.

  • The following global functions have been removed: config(), cache(), clearCache(), convertSlashes(), am(), fileExistsInPath(), sortByKey().


  • Configure::write('debug', $bool) does not support 0/1/2 anymore. A simple boolean is used instead to switch debug mode on or off.

Object settings/configuration

  • Objects used in CakePHP now have a consistent instance-configuration storage/retrieval system. Code which previously accessed for example: $object->settings should instead be updated to use $object->config().


  • Memcache engine has been removed, use Cake\Cache\Cache\Engine\Memcached instead.

  • Cache engines are now lazy loaded upon first use.

  • Cake\Cache\Cache::engine() has been added.

  • Cake\Cache\Cache::enabled() has been added. This replaced the Cache.disable configure option.

  • Cake\Cache\Cache::enable() has been added.

  • Cake\Cache\Cache::disable() has been added.

  • Cache configurations are now immutable. If you need to change configuration you must first drop the configuration and then re-create it. This prevents synchronization issues with configuration options.

  • Cache::set() has been removed. It is recommended that you create multiple cache configurations to replace runtime configuration tweaks previously possible with Cache::set().

  • All CacheEngine subclasses now implement a config() method.

  • Cake\Cache\Cache::readMany(), Cake\Cache\Cache::deleteMany(), and Cake\Cache\Cache::writeMany() were added.

All Cake\Cache\Cache\CacheEngine methods now honor/are responsible for handling the configured key prefix. The Cake\Cache\CacheEngine::write() no longer permits setting the duration on write - the duration is taken from the cache engine’s runtime config. Calling a cache method with an empty key will now throw an InvalidArgumentException, instead of returning false.



  • App::pluginPath() has been removed. Use CakePlugin::path() instead.

  • App::build() has been removed.

  • App::location() has been removed.

  • App::paths() has been removed.

  • App::load() has been removed.

  • App::objects() has been removed.

  • App::RESET has been removed.

  • App::APPEND has been removed.

  • App::PREPEND has been removed.

  • App::REGISTER has been removed.


  • Cake\Core\Plugin::load() does not setup an autoloader unless you set the autoload option to true.

  • When loading plugins you can no longer provide a callable.

  • When loading plugins you can no longer provide an array of config files to load.


  • Cake\Configure\PhpReader renamed to Cake\Core\Configure\EnginePhpConfig

  • Cake\Configure\IniReader renamed to Cake\Core\Configure\EngineIniConfig

  • Cake\Configure\ConfigReaderInterface renamed to Cake\Core\Configure\ConfigEngineInterface

  • Cake\Core\Configure::consume() was added.

  • Cake\Core\Configure::load() now expects the file name without extension suffix as this can be derived from the engine. E.g. using PhpConfig use app to load app.php.

  • Setting a $config variable in PHP config file is deprecated. Cake\Core\Configure\EnginePhpConfig now expects the config file to return an array.

  • A new config engine Cake\Core\Configure\EngineJsonConfig has been added.


The Object class has been removed. It formerly contained a grab bag of methods that were used in various places across the framework. The most useful of these methods have been extracted into traits. You can use the Cake\Log\LogTrait to access the log() method. The Cake\Routing\RequestActionTrait provides requestAction().


The cake executable has been moved from the app/Console directory to the bin directory within the application skeleton. You can now invoke CakePHP’s console with bin/cake.

TaskCollection Replaced

This class has been renamed to Cake\Console\TaskRegistry. See the section on Registry Objects for more information on the features provided by the new class. You can use the cake upgrade rename_collections to assist in upgrading your code. Tasks no longer have access to callbacks, as there were never any callbacks to use.


  • Shell::__construct() has changed. It now takes an instance of Cake\Console\ConsoleIo.

  • Shell::param() has been added as convenience access to the parameters.

Additionally all shell methods will be transformed to camel case when invoked. For example, if you had a hello_world() method inside a shell and invoked it with bin/cake my_shell hello_world, you will need to rename the method to helloWorld. There are no changes required in the way you invoke commands.


  • ConsoleOptionParser::merge() has been added to merge parsers.


  • ConsoleInputArgument::isEqualTo() has been added to compare two arguments.

Shell / Task

Shells and Tasks have been moved from Console/Command and Console/Command/Task to Shell and Shell/Task.

ApiShell Removed

The ApiShell was removed as it didn’t provide any benefit over the file source itself and the online documentation/API.

SchemaShell Removed

The SchemaShell was removed as it was never a complete database migration implementation and better tools such as Phinx have emerged. It has been replaced by the CakePHP Migrations Plugin which acts as a wrapper between CakePHP and Phinx.


  • bin/cake i18n extract no longer includes untranslated validation messages. If you want translated validation messages you should wrap those messages in __() calls like any other content.

BakeShell / TemplateTask

  • Bake is no longer part of the core source and is superseded by CakePHP Bake Plugin

  • Bake templates have been moved under src/Template/Bake.

  • The syntax of Bake templates now uses erb-style tags (<% %>) to denote templating logic, allowing php code to be treated as plain text.

  • The bake view command has been renamed bake template.


The getEventManager() method, was removed on all objects that had it. An eventManager() method is now provided by the EventManagerTrait. The EventManagerTrait contains the logic of instantiating and keeping a reference to a local event manager.

The Event subsystem has had a number of optional features removed. When dispatching events you can no longer use the following options:

  • passParams This option is now enabled always implicitly. You cannot turn it off.

  • break This option has been removed. You must now stop events.

  • breakOn This option has been removed. You must now stop events.


  • Log configurations are now immutable. If you need to change configuration you must first drop the configuration and then re-create it. This prevents synchronization issues with configuration options.

  • Log engines are now lazily loaded upon the first write to the logs.

  • Cake\Log\Log::engine() has been added.

  • The following methods have been removed from Cake\Log\Log :: defaultLevels(), enabled(), enable(), disable().

  • You can no longer create custom levels using Log::levels().

  • When configuring loggers you should use 'levels' instead of 'types'.

  • You can no longer specify custom log levels. You must use the default set of log levels. You should use logging scopes to create custom log files or specific handling for different sections of your application. Using a non-standard log level will now throw an exception.

  • Cake\Log\LogTrait was added. You can use this trait in your classes to add the log() method.

  • The logging scope passed to Cake\Log\Log::write() is now forwarded to the log engines’ write() method in order to provide better context to the engines.

  • Log engines are now required to implement Psr\Log\LogInterface instead of CakePHP’s own LogInterface. In general, if you extended Cake\Log\Engine\BaseEngine you just need to rename the write() method to log().

  • Cake\Log\Engine\FileLog now writes files in ROOT/logs instead of ROOT/tmp/logs.


Named Parameters

Named parameters were removed in 3.0. Named parameters were added in 1.2.0 as a ‘pretty’ version of query string parameters. While the visual benefit is arguable, the problems named parameters created are not.

Named parameters required special handling in CakePHP as well as any PHP or JavaScript library that needed to interact with them, as named parameters are not implemented or understood by any library except CakePHP. The additional complexity and code required to support named parameters did not justify their existence, and they have been removed. In their place you should use standard query string parameters or passed arguments. By default Router will treat any additional parameters to Router::url() as query string arguments.

Since many applications will still need to parse incoming URLs containing named parameters. Cake\Routing\Router::parseNamedParams() has been added to allow backwards compatibility with existing URLs.


  • Cake\Routing\RequestActionTrait::requestAction() has had some of the extra options changed:

    • options[url] is now options[query].

    • options[data] is now options[post].

    • Named parameters are no longer supported.


  • Named parameters have been removed, see above for more information.

  • The full_base option has been replaced with the _full option.

  • The ext option has been replaced with the _ext option.

  • _scheme, _port, _host, _base, _full, _ext options added.

  • String URLs are no longer modified by adding the plugin/controller/prefix names.

  • The default fallback route handling was removed. If no routes match a parameter set / will be returned.

  • Route classes are responsible for all URL generation including query string parameters. This makes routes far more powerful and flexible.

  • Persistent parameters were removed. They were replaced with Cake\Routing\Router::urlFilter() which allows a more flexible way to mutate URLs being reverse routed.

  • Router::parseExtensions() has been removed. Use Cake\Routing\Router::extensions() instead. This method must be called before routes are connected. It won’t modify existing routes.

  • Router::setExtensions() has been removed. Use Cake\Routing\Router::extensions() instead.

  • Router::resourceMap() has been removed.

  • The [method] option has been renamed to _method.

  • The ability to match arbitrary headers with [] style parameters has been removed. If you need to parse/match on arbitrary conditions consider using custom route classes.

  • Router::promote() has been removed.

  • Router::parse() will now raise an exception when a URL cannot be handled by any route.

  • Router::url() will now raise an exception when no route matches a set of parameters.

  • Routing scopes have been introduced. Routing scopes allow you to keep your routes file DRY and give Router hints on how to optimize parsing & reverse routing URLs.


  • CakeRoute was re-named to Route.

  • The signature of match() has changed to match($url, $context = []) See Cake\Routing\Route::match() for information on the new signature.

Dispatcher Filters Configuration Changed

Dispatcher filters are no longer added to your application using Configure. You now append them with Cake\Routing\DispatcherFactory. This means if your application used Dispatcher.filters, you should now use Cake\Routing\DispatcherFactory::add().

In addition to configuration changes, dispatcher filters have had some conventions updated, and features added. See the Dispatcher Filters documentation for more information.


  • Plugin & theme assets handled by the AssetFilter are no longer read via include instead they are treated as plain text files. This fixes a number of issues with JavaScript libraries like TinyMCE and environments with short_tags enabled.

  • Support for the Asset.filter configuration and hooks were removed. This feature should be replaced with a plugin or dispatcher filter.



  • CakeRequest has been renamed to Cake\Network\Request.

  • Cake\Network\Request::port() was added.

  • Cake\Network\Request::scheme() was added.

  • Cake\Network\Request::cookie() was added.

  • Cake\Network\Request::$trustProxy was added. This makes it easier to put CakePHP applications behind load balancers.

  • Cake\Network\Request::$data is no longer merged with the prefixed data key, as that prefix has been removed.

  • Cake\Network\Request::env() was added.

  • Cake\Network\Request::acceptLanguage() was changed from static method to non-static.

  • Request detector for “mobile” has been removed from the core. Instead the app template adds detectors for “mobile” and “tablet” using MobileDetect lib.

  • The method onlyAllow() has been renamed to allowMethod() and no longer accepts “var args”. All method names need to be passed as first argument, either as string or array of strings.


  • The mapping of mimetype text/plain to extension csv has been removed. As a consequence Cake\Controller\Component\RequestHandlerComponent doesn’t set extension to csv if Accept header contains mimetype text/plain which was a common annoyance when receiving a jQuery XHR request.


The session class is no longer static, instead the session can be accessed through the request object. See the Sessions documentation for using the session object.

  • Cake\Network\Session and related session classes have been moved under the Cake\Network namespace.

  • SessionHandlerInterface has been removed in favor of the one provided by PHP itself.

  • The property Session::$requestCountdown has been removed.

  • The session checkAgent feature has been removed. It caused a number of bugs when chrome frame, and flash player are involved.

  • The conventional sessions database table name is now sessions instead of cake_sessions.

  • The session cookie timeout is automatically updated in tandem with the timeout in the session data.

  • The path for session cookie now defaults to app’s base path instead of “/”. A new configuration variable Session.cookiePath has been added to customize the cookie path.

  • A new convenience method Cake\Network\Session::consume() has been added to allow reading and deleting session data in a single step.

  • The default value of Cake\Network\Session::clear()’s argument $renew has been changed from true to false.


  • HttpSocket is now Cake\Network\Http\Client.

  • HttpClient has been re-written from the ground up. It has a simpler/easier to use API, support for new authentication systems like OAuth, and file uploads. It uses PHP’s stream APIs so there is no requirement for cURL. See the Http Client documentation for more information.


  • Cake\Network\Email\Email::config() is now used to define configuration profiles. This replaces the EmailConfig classes in previous versions.

  • Cake\Network\Email\Email::profile() replaces config() as the way to modify per instance configuration options.

  • Cake\Network\Email\Email::drop() has been added to allow the removal of email configuration.

  • Cake\Network\Email\Email::configTransport() has been added to allow the definition of transport configurations. This change removes transport options from delivery profiles and allows you to re-use transports across email profiles.

  • Cake\Network\Email\Email::dropTransport() has been added to allow the removal of transport configuration.



  • The $helpers, $components properties are now merged with all parent classes not just AppController and the plugin AppController. The properties are merged differently now as well. Instead of all settings in all classes being merged together, the configuration defined in the child class will be used. This means that if you have some configuration defined in your AppController, and some configuration defined in a subclass, only the configuration in the subclass will be used.

  • Controller::httpCodes() has been removed, use Cake\Network\Response::httpCodes() instead.

  • Controller::disableCache() has been removed, use Cake\Network\Response::disableCache() instead.

  • Controller::flash() has been removed. This method was rarely used in real applications and served no purpose anymore.

  • Controller::validate() and Controller::validationErrors() have been removed. They were left over methods from the 1.x days where the concerns of models + controllers were far more intertwined.

  • Controller::loadModel() now loads table objects.

  • The Controller::$scaffold property has been removed. Dynamic scaffolding has been removed from CakePHP core. An improved scaffolding plugin, named CRUD, can be found here: https://github.com/FriendsOfCake/crud

  • The Controller::$ext property has been removed. You now have to extend and override the View::$_ext property if you want to use a non-default view file extension.

  • The Controller::$methods property has been removed. You should now use Controller::isAction() to determine whether or not a method name is an action. This change was made to allow easier customization of what is and is not counted as an action.

  • The Controller::$Components property has been removed and replaced with _components. If you need to load components at runtime you should use $this->loadComponent() on your controller.

  • The signature of Cake\Controller\Controller::redirect() has been changed to Controller::redirect(string|array $url, int $status = null). The 3rd argument $exit has been dropped. The method can no longer send response and exit script, instead it returns a Response instance with appropriate headers set.

  • The base, webroot, here, data, action, and params magic properties have been removed. You should access all of these properties on $this->request instead.

  • Underscore prefixed controller methods like _someMethod() are no longer treated as private methods. Use proper visibility keywords instead. Only public methods can be used as controller actions.

Scaffold Removed

The dynamic scaffolding in CakePHP has been removed from CakePHP core. It was infrequently used, and never intended for production use. An improved scaffolding plugin, named CRUD, can be found here: https://github.com/FriendsOfCake/crud

ComponentCollection Replaced

This class has been renamed to Cake\Controller\ComponentRegistry. See the section on Registry Objects for more information on the features provided by the new class. You can use the cake upgrade rename_collections to assist in upgrading your code.


  • The _Collection property is now _registry. It contains an instance of Cake\Controller\ComponentRegistry now.

  • All components should now use the config() method to get/set configuration.

  • Default configuration for components should be defined in the $_defaultConfig property. This property is automatically merged with any configuration provided to the constructor.

  • Configuration options are no longer set as public properties.

  • The Component::initialize() method is no longer an event listener. Instead, it is a post-constructor hook like Table::initialize() and Controller::initialize(). The new Component::beforeFilter() method is bound to the same event that Component::initialize() used to be. The initialize method should have the following signature initialize(array $config).



  • Uses Cake\Network\Request::cookie() to read cookie data, this eases testing, and allows for ControllerTestCase to set cookies.

  • Cookies encrypted in previous versions of CakePHP using the cipher() method are now un-readable because Security::cipher() has been removed. You will need to re-encrypt cookies with the rijndael() or aes() method before upgrading.

  • CookieComponent::type() has been removed and replaced with configuration data accessed through config().

  • write() no longer takes encryption or expires parameters. Both of these are now managed through config data. See Cookie for more information.

  • The path for cookies now defaults to app’s base path instead of “/”.


  • Default is now the default password hasher used by authentication classes. It uses exclusively the bcrypt hashing algorithm. If you want to continue using SHA1 hashing used in 2.x use 'passwordHasher' => 'Weak' in your authenticator configuration.

  • A new FallbackPasswordHasher was added to help users migrate old passwords from one algorithm to another. Check AuthComponent’s documentation for more info.

  • BlowfishAuthenticate class has been removed. Just use FormAuthenticate

  • BlowfishPasswordHasher class has been removed. Use DefaultPasswordHasher instead.

  • The loggedIn() method has been removed. Use user() instead.

  • Configuration options are no longer set as public properties.

  • The methods allow() and deny() no longer accept “var args”. All method names need to be passed as first argument, either as string or array of strings.

  • The method login() has been removed and replaced by setUser() instead. To login a user you now have to call identify() which returns user info upon successful identification and then use setUser() to save the info to session for persistence across requests.

  • BaseAuthenticate::_password() has been removed. Use a PasswordHasher class instead.

  • BaseAuthenticate::logout() has been removed.

  • AuthComponent now triggers two events Auth.afterIdentify and Auth.logout after a user has been identified and before a user is logged out respectively. You can set callback functions for these events by returning a mapping array from implementedEvents() method of your authenticate class.

ACL related classes were moved to a separate plugin. Password hashers, Authentication and Authorization providers where moved to the \Cake\Auth namespace. You are required to move your providers and hashers to the App\Auth namespace as well.


  • The following methods have been removed from RequestHandler component:: isAjax(), isFlash(), isSSL(), isPut(), isPost(), isGet(), isDelete(). Use the Cake\Network\Request::is() method instead with relevant argument.

  • RequestHandler::setContent() was removed, use Cake\Network\Response::type() instead.

  • RequestHandler::getReferer() was removed, use Cake\Network\Request::referer() instead.

  • RequestHandler::getClientIP() was removed, use Cake\Network\Request::clientIp() instead.

  • RequestHandler::getAjaxVersion() was removed.

  • RequestHandler::mapType() was removed, use Cake\Network\Response::mapType() instead.

  • Configuration options are no longer set as public properties.


  • The following methods and their related properties have been removed from Security component: requirePost(), requireGet(), requirePut(), requireDelete(). Use the Cake\Network\Request::allowMethod() instead.

  • SecurityComponent::$disabledFields() has been removed, use SecurityComponent::$unlockedFields().

  • The CSRF related features in SecurityComponent have been extracted and moved into a separate CsrfComponent. This allows you to use CSRF protection without having to use form tampering prevention.

  • Configuration options are no longer set as public properties.

  • The methods requireAuth() and requireSecure() no longer accept “var args”. All method names need to be passed as first argument, either as string or array of strings.


  • SessionComponent::setFlash() is deprecated. You should use Flash instead.


Custom ExceptionRenderers are now expected to either return a Cake\Network\Response object or string when rendering errors. This means that any methods handling specific exceptions must return a response or string value.


The Model layer in 2.x has been entirely re-written and replaced. You should review the New ORM Upgrade Guide for information on how to use the new ORM.

  • The Model class has been removed.

  • The BehaviorCollection class has been removed.

  • The DboSource class has been removed.

  • The Datasource class has been removed.

  • The various datasource classes have been removed.


  • ConnectionManager has been moved to the Cake\Datasource namespace.

  • ConnectionManager has had the following methods removed:

    • sourceList

    • getSourceName

    • loadDataSource

    • enumConnectionObjects

  • config() has been added and is now the only way to configure connections.

  • get() has been added. It replaces getDataSource().

  • configured() has been added. It and config() replace sourceList() & enumConnectionObjects() with a more standard and consistent API.

  • ConnectionManager::create() has been removed. It can be replaced by config($name, $config) and get($name).


  • Underscore prefixed behavior methods like _someMethod() are no longer treated as private methods. Use proper visibility keywords instead.


The TreeBehavior was completely re-written to use the new ORM. Although it works the same as in 2.x, a few methods were renamed or removed:

  • TreeBehavior::children() is now a custom finder find('children').

  • TreeBehavior::generateTreeList() is now a custom finder find('treeList').

  • TreeBehavior::getParentNode() was removed.

  • TreeBehavior::getPath() is now a custom finder find('path').

  • TreeBehavior::reorder() was removed.

  • TreeBehavior::verify() was removed.



  • _normalizePath() has been added to allow path comparison tests to run across all operation systems regarding their DS settings (\ in Windows vs / in UNIX, for example).

The following assertion methods have been removed as they have long been deprecated and replaced by their new PHPUnit counterpart:

  • assertEqual() in favor of assertEquals()

  • assertNotEqual() in favor of assertNotEquals()

  • assertIdentical() in favor of assertSame()

  • assertNotIdentical() in favor of assertNotSame()

  • assertPattern() in favor of assertRegExp()

  • assertNoPattern() in favor of assertNotRegExp()

  • assertReference() if favor of assertSame()

  • assertIsA() in favor of assertInstanceOf()

Note that some methods have switched the argument order, e.g. assertEqual($is, $expected) should now be assertEquals($expected, $is).

The following assertion methods have been deprecated and will be removed in the future:

  • assertWithinMargin() in favor of assertWithinRange()

  • assertTags() in favor of assertHtml()

Both method replacements also switched the argument order for a consistent assert method API with $expected as first argument.

The following assertion methods have been added:

  • assertNotWithinRange() as counter part to assertWithinRange()


Themes are now Basic Plugins

Having themes and plugins as ways to create modular application components has proven to be limited, and confusing. In CakePHP 3.0, themes no longer reside inside the application. Instead they are standalone plugins. This solves a few problems with themes:

  • You could not put themes in plugins.

  • Themes could not provide helpers, or custom view classes.

Both these issues are solved by converting themes into plugins.

View Folders Renamed

The folders containing view files now go under src/Template instead of src/View. This was done to separate the view files from files containing php classes (eg. Helpers, View classes).

The following View folders have been renamed to avoid naming collisions with controller names:

  • Layouts is now Layout

  • Elements is now Element

  • Errors is now Error

  • Emails is now Email (same for Email inside Layout)

HelperCollection Replaced

This class has been renamed to Cake\View\HelperRegistry. See the section on Registry Objects for more information on the features provided by the new class. You can use the cake upgrade rename_collections to assist in upgrading your code.

View Class

  • The plugin key has been removed from $options argument of Cake\View\View::element(). Specify the element name as SomePlugin.element_name instead.

  • View::getVar() has been removed, use Cake\View\View::get() instead.

  • View::$ext has been removed and instead a protected property View::$_ext has been added.

  • View::addScript() has been removed. Use Using View Blocks instead.

  • The base, webroot, here, data, action, and params magic properties have been removed. You should access all of these properties on $this->request instead.

  • View::start() no longer appends to an existing block. Instead it will overwrite the block content when end is called. If you need to combine block contents you should fetch the block content when calling start a second time, or use the capturing mode of append().

  • View::prepend() no longer has a capturing mode.

  • View::startIfEmpty() has been removed. Now that start() always overwrites startIfEmpty serves no purpose.

  • The View::$Helpers property has been removed and replaced with _helpers. If you need to load helpers at runtime you should use $this->addHelper() in your view files.

  • View will now raise Cake\View\Exception\MissingTemplateException when templates are missing instead of MissingViewException.


  • ViewBlock::append() has been removed, use Cake\ViewViewBlock::concat() instead. However, View::append() still exists.


  • By default JSON data will have HTML entities encoded now. This prevents possible XSS issues when JSON view content is embedded in HTML files.

  • Cake\View\JsonView now supports the _jsonOptions view variable. This allows you to configure the bit-mask options used when generating JSON.


  • Cake\View\XmlView now supports the _xmlOptions view variable. This allows you to configure the options used when generating XML.


  • The $settings property is now called $_config and should be accessed through the config() method.

  • Configuration options are no longer set as public properties.

  • Helper::clean() was removed. It was never robust enough to fully prevent XSS. instead you should escape content with h or use a dedicated library like htmlPurifier.

  • Helper::output() was removed. This method was deprecated in 2.x.

  • Methods Helper::webroot(), Helper::url(), Helper::assetUrl(), Helper::assetTimestamp() have been moved to new Cake\View\Helper\UrlHelper helper. Helper::url() is now available as Cake\View\Helper\UrlHelper::build().

  • Magic accessors to deprecated properties have been removed. The following properties now need to be accessed from the request object:

    • base

    • here

    • webroot

    • data

    • action

    • params


Helper has had the following methods removed:

  • Helper::setEntity()

  • Helper::entity()

  • Helper::model()

  • Helper::field()

  • Helper::value()

  • Helper::_name()

  • Helper::_initInputField()

  • Helper::_selectedArray()

These methods were part used only by FormHelper, and part of the persistent field features that have proven to be problematic over time. FormHelper no longer relies on these methods and the complexity they provide is not necessary anymore.

The following methods have been removed:

  • Helper::_parseAttributes()

  • Helper::_formatAttribute()

These methods can now be found on the StringTemplate class that helpers frequently use. See the StringTemplateTrait for an easy way to integrate string templates into your own helpers.


FormHelper has been entirely rewritten for 3.0. It features a few large changes:

  • FormHelper works with the new ORM. But has an extensible system for integrating with other ORMs or datasources.

  • FormHelper features an extensible widget system that allows you to create new custom input widgets and augment the built-in ones.

  • String templates are the foundation of the helper. Instead of munging arrays together everywhere, most of the HTML FormHelper generates can be customized in one central place using template sets.

In addition to these larger changes, some smaller breaking changes have been made as well. These changes should help streamline the HTML FormHelper generates and reduce the problems people had in the past:

  • The data[ prefix was removed from all generated inputs. The prefix serves no real purpose anymore.

  • The various standalone input methods like text(), select() and others no longer generate id attributes.

  • The inputDefaults option has been removed from create().

  • Options default and onsubmit of create() have been removed. Instead one should use JavaScript event binding or set all required js code for onsubmit.

  • end() can no longer make buttons. You should create buttons with button() or submit().

  • FormHelper::tagIsInvalid() has been removed. Use isFieldError() instead.

  • FormHelper::inputDefaults() has been removed. You can use templates() to define/augment the templates FormHelper uses.

  • The wrap and class options have been removed from the error() method.

  • The showParents option has been removed from select().

  • The div, before, after, between and errorMessage options have been removed from input(). You can use templates to update the wrapping HTML. The templates option allows you to override the loaded templates for one input.

  • The separator, between, and legend options have been removed from radio(). You can use templates to change the wrapping HTML now.

  • The format24Hours parameter has been removed from hour(). It has been replaced with the format option.

  • The minYear, and maxYear parameters have been removed from year(). Both of these parameters can now be provided as options.

  • The dateFormat and timeFormat parameters have been removed from datetime(). You can use the template to define the order the inputs should be displayed in.

  • The submit() has had the div, before and after options removed. You can customize the submitContainer template to modify this content.

  • The inputs() method no longer accepts legend and fieldset in the $fields parameter, you must use the $options parameter. It now also requires $fields parameter to be an array. The $blacklist parameter has been removed, the functionality has been replaced by specifying 'field' => false in the $fields parameter.

  • The inline parameter has been removed from postLink() method. You should use the block option instead. Setting block => true will emulate the previous behavior.

  • The timeFormat parameter for hour(), time() and dateTime() now defaults to 24, complying with ISO 8601.

  • The $confirmMessage argument of Cake\View\Helper\FormHelper::postLink() has been removed. You should now use key confirm in $options to specify the message.

  • Checkbox and radio input types are now rendered inside of label elements by default. This helps increase compatibility with popular CSS libraries like Bootstrap and Foundation.

  • Templates tags are now all camelBacked. Pre-3.0 tags formstart, formend, hiddenblock and inputsubmit are now formStart, formEnd, hiddenBlock and inputSubmit. Make sure you change them if they are customized in your app.

It is recommended that you review the Form documentation for more details on how to use the FormHelper in 3.0.


  • HtmlHelper::useTag() has been removed, use tag() instead.

  • HtmlHelper::loadConfig() has been removed. Customizing the tags can now be done using templates() or the templates setting.

  • The second parameter $options for HtmlHelper::css() now always requires an array as documented.

  • The first parameter $data for HtmlHelper::style() now always requires an array as documented.

  • The inline parameter has been removed from meta(), css(), script(), scriptBlock() methods. You should use the block option instead. Setting block => true will emulate the previous behavior.

  • HtmlHelper::meta() now requires $type to be a string. Additional options can further on be passed as $options.

  • HtmlHelper::nestedList() now requires $options to be an array. The forth argument for the tag type has been removed and included in the $options array.

  • The $confirmMessage argument of Cake\View\Helper\HtmlHelper::link() has been removed. You should now use key confirm in $options to specify the message.


  • link() has been removed. It was no longer used by the helper internally. It had low usage in user land code, and no longer fit the goals of the helper.

  • next() no longer has ‘class’, or ‘tag’ options. It no longer has disabled arguments. Instead templates are used.

  • prev() no longer has ‘class’, or ‘tag’ options. It no longer has disabled arguments. Instead templates are used.

  • first() no longer has ‘after’, ‘ellipsis’, ‘separator’, ‘class’, or ‘tag’ options.

  • last() no longer has ‘after’, ‘ellipsis’, ‘separator’, ‘class’, or ‘tag’ options.

  • numbers() no longer has ‘separator’, ‘tag’, ‘currentTag’, ‘currentClass’, ‘class’, ‘tag’, ‘ellipsis’ options. These options are now facilitated through templates. It also requires the $options parameter to be an array now.

  • The %page% style placeholders have been removed from Cake\View\Helper\PaginatorHelper::counter(). Use {{page}} style placeholders instead.

  • url() has been renamed to generateUrl() to avoid method declaration clashes with Helper::url().

By default all links and inactive texts are wrapped in <li> elements. This helps make CSS easier to write, and improves compatibility with popular CSS frameworks.

Instead of the various options in each method, you should use the templates feature. See the PaginatorHelper Templates documentation for information on how to use templates.


  • TimeHelper::__set(), TimeHelper::__get(), and TimeHelper::__isset() were removed. These were magic methods for deprecated attributes.

  • TimeHelper::serverOffset() has been removed. It promoted incorrect time math practices.

  • TimeHelper::niceShort() has been removed.


  • NumberHelper::format() now requires $options to be an array.


  • The SessionHelper has been deprecated. You can use $this->request->session() directly, and the flash message functionality has been moved into Flash instead.


  • JsHelper and all associated engines have been removed. It could only generate a very small subset of JavaScript code for selected library and hence trying to generate all JavaScript code using just the helper often became an impediment. It’s now recommended to directly use JavaScript library of your choice.

CacheHelper Removed

CacheHelper has been removed. The caching functionality it provided was non-standard, limited and incompatible with non-HTML layouts and data views. These limitations meant a full rebuild would be necessary. Edge Side Includes have become a standardized way to implement the functionality CacheHelper used to provide. However, implementing Edge Side Includes in PHP has a number of limitations and edge cases. Instead of building a sub-par solution, we recommend that developers needing full response caching use Varnish or Squid instead.


The I18n subsystem was completely rewritten. In general, you can expect the same behavior as in previous versions, specifically if you are using the __() family of functions.

Internally, the I18n class uses Aura\Intl, and appropriate methods are exposed to access the specific features of this library. For this reason most methods inside I18n were removed or renamed.

Due to the use of ext/intl, the L10n class was completely removed. It provided outdated and incomplete data in comparison to the data available from the Locale class in PHP.

The default application language will no longer be changed automatically by the browser accepted language nor by having the Config.language value set in the browser session. You can, however, use a dispatcher filter to get automatic language switching from the Accept-Language header sent by the browser:

// In config/bootstrap.php

There is no built-in replacement for automatically selecting the language by setting a value in the user session.

The default formatting function for translated messages is no longer sprintf, but the more advanced and feature rich MessageFormatter class. In general you can rewrite placeholders in messages as follows:

// Before:
__('Today is a %s day in %s', 'Sunny', 'Spain');

// After:
__('Today is a {0} day in {1}', 'Sunny', 'Spain');

You can avoid rewriting your messages by using the old sprintf formatter:


Additionally, the Config.language value was removed and it can no longer be used to control the current language of the application. Instead, you can use the I18n class:

// Before
Configure::write('Config.language', 'fr_FR');

// Now
  • The methods below have been moved:

    • From Cake\I18n\Multibyte::utf8() to Cake\Utility\Text::utf8()

    • From Cake\I18n\Multibyte::ascii() to Cake\Utility\Text::ascii()

    • From Cake\I18n\Multibyte::checkMultibyte() to Cake\Utility\Text::isMultibyte()

  • Since CakePHP now requires the mbstring extension, the Multibyte class has been removed.

  • Error messages throughout CakePHP are no longer passed through I18n functions. This was done to simplify the internals of CakePHP and reduce overhead. The developer facing messages are rarely, if ever, actually translated - so the additional overhead reaps very little benefit.


  • Cake\I18n\L10n ‘s constructor now takes a Cake\Network\Request instance as argument.


  • The TestShell has been removed. CakePHP, the application skeleton and newly baked plugins all use phpunit to run tests.

  • The webrunner (webroot/test.php) has been removed. CLI adoption has greatly increased since the initial release of 2.x. Additionaly, CLI runners offer superior integration with IDE’s and other automated tooling.

    If you find yourself in need of a way to run tests from a browser you should checkout VisualPHPUnit. It offers many additional features over the old webrunner.

  • ControllerTestCase is deprecated and will be removed for CakePHP 3.0.0. You should use the new Controller Integration Testing features instead.

  • Fixtures should now be referenced using their plural form:

    // Instead of
    $fixtures = ['app.article'];
    // You should use
    $fixtures = ['app.articles'];


Set Class Removed

The Set class has been removed, you should use the Hash class instead now.

Folder & File

The folder and file classes have been renamed:


  • The default value for $replacement argument of Cake\Utility\Inflector::slug() has been changed from underscore (_) to dash (-). Using dashes to separate words in URLs is the popular choice and also recommended by Google.

  • Transliterations for Cake\Utility\Inflector::slug() have changed. If you use custom transliterations you will need to update your code. Instead of regular expressions, transliterations use simple string replacement. This yielded significant performance improvements:

    // Instead of
    Inflector::rules('transliteration', [
        '/ä|æ/' => 'ae',
        '/å/' => 'aa'
    // You should use
    Inflector::rules('transliteration', [
        'ä' => 'ae',
        'æ' => 'ae',
        'å' => 'aa'
  • Separate set of uninflected and irregular rules for pluralization and singularization have been removed. Instead we now have a common list for each. When using Cake\Utility\Inflector::rules() with type ‘singular’ and ‘plural’ you can no longer use keys like ‘uninflected’, ‘irregular’ in $rules argument array.

    You can add / overwrite the list of uninflected and irregular rules using Cake\Utility\Inflector::rules() by using values ‘uninflected’ and ‘irregular’ for $type argument.


  • Sanitize class has been removed.


  • Security::cipher() has been removed. It is insecure and promoted bad cryptographic practices. You should use Security::encrypt() instead.

  • The Configure value Security.cipherSeed is no longer required. With the removal of Security::cipher() it serves no use.

  • Backwards compatibility in Cake\Utility\Security::rijndael() for values encrypted prior to CakePHP 2.3.1 has been removed. You should re-encrypt values using Security::encrypt() and a recent version of CakePHP 2.x before migrating.

  • The ability to generate a blowfish hash has been removed. You can no longer use type “blowfish” for Security::hash(). One should just use PHP’s password_hash() and password_verify() to generate and verify blowfish hashes. The compability library ircmaxell/password-compat which is installed along with CakePHP provides these functions for PHP < 5.5.

  • OpenSSL is now used over mcrypt when encrypting/decrypting data. This change provides better performance and future proofs CakePHP against distros dropping support for mcrypt.

  • Security::rijndael() is deprecated and only available when using mcrypt.


Data encrypted with Security::encrypt() in previous versions is not compatible with the openssl implementation. You should set the implementation to mcrypt when upgrading.


  • CakeTime has been renamed to Cake\I18n\Time.

  • CakeTime::serverOffset() has been removed. It promoted incorrect time math practises.

  • CakeTime::niceShort() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::convert() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::convertSpecifiers() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::dayAsSql() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::daysAsSql() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::fromString() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::gmt() has been removed.

  • CakeTime::toATOM() has been renamed to toAtomString.

  • CakeTime::toRSS() has been renamed to toRssString.

  • CakeTime::toUnix() has been renamed to toUnixString.

  • CakeTime::wasYesterday() has been renamed to isYesterday to match the rest of the method naming.

  • CakeTime::format() Does not use sprintf format strings anymore, you can use i18nFormat instead.

  • Time::timeAgoInWords() now requires $options to be an array.

Time is not a collection of static methods anymore, it extends DateTime to inherit all its methods and adds location aware formatting functions with the help of the intl extension.

In general, expressions looking like this:


Can be migrated by rewriting it to:

(new Time($date))->aMethod();


The Number library was rewritten to internally use the NumberFormatter class.


  • The range for Validation::range() now is inclusive if $lower and $upper are provided.

  • Validation::ssn() has been removed.


  • Xml::build() now requires $options to be an array.

  • Xml::build() no longer accepts a URL. If you need to create an XML document from a URL, use Http\Client.